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Nomes comuns de soluções de ácido hipocloroso


  • Electrolytically Generated Hypochlorous Acid
  • Neutral Electrolyzed Water (NEW)
  • Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water (EOW)
  • Electro-chemically Activated Water (ECA)
  • Super-oxidized water (SOW)


Resultado: 47 Artigos Publicados


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Microbe(s): Murine Norovirus surrogate for Human Norovirus


The EWCO 240 system was used to generate a 50 ppm electrolyzed water solution of hypochlorous acid at pH 8 (25% solution of HOCl). Ceramic tile which had been innoculated with Murine Norovirus was treated with the hypochlorous acid solution for a contact time of 1 minute resulting in a 4-log reduction of Murine Norovirus.



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Microbe(s): Murine Norovirus surrogate for Human Norovirus


The EWCO 240 system was used to generate a 50 ppm electrolyzed water solution of hypochlorous acid at pH 5 (99% solution of HOCl). Ceramic tile which had been innoculated with Murine Norovirus was treated with the hypochlorous acid solution for a contact time of 1 minute resulting in a 5-log reduction of Murine Norovirus.



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Microbe(s): COVID-19, Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2


To eliminate the COVID-19 pandemic, the transmission of the virus SARS-CoV-2 among the population needs to be blocked and/or at least reduced. Upper respiratory tract viral loads are highest in the early stages of the disease, and high loads are associated with higher mortality rates. This study aims to evaluate the virucidal efficacy of AOS2020, a novel sprayable Acid-Oxidizing solution containing pure and stable hypochlorous acid (HClO), on human coronavirus SARS-Cov-2 in vitro, and the tolerability profile on nasal and oral mucosa suggesting to be a potential solution for upper respiratory hygiene. Virucidal assays and intranasal and oral irritation tests were undertaken in accordance with relevant national and international guidance and methods. In pre-clinical tests, the AOS2020, showed>99.8 virucidal efficacy in<1 min against SARS-Cov-2. The safety profile testing on both the nasal and oral mucosa indicates that AOS2020 is non-irritant. These initial results indicate that this product has the potential treatment to reduce viral in the upper respiratory tract.



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Microbe(s): COVID-19, Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2


Infectious SARS-CoV-2 can be recovered from the oral cavities and saliva of COVID-19 patients with potential implications for disease transmission. Reducing viral in patient saliva using antiviral mouthwashes may therefore have a role as a control measure in limiting virus spread, particularly in dental settings. Here, the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 inactivation by seven commercially available mouthwashes with a range of active ingredients were evaluated in vitro. We demonstrate 4.1to 5.5 log10 reduction in SARS-CoV-2 titre following a 1min treatment with commercially available mouthwashes containing 0.010.02% stabilised hypochlorous acid or 0.58% povidone iodine, and non-specialist mouthwashes with both alcohol-based and alcohol-free formulations designed for home use. In contrast, products containing 1.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were ineffective against SARS-CoV-2 in these tests. This study contributes to the growing body of evidence surrounding virucidal efficacy of mouthwashes/oral rinses against SARS-CoV-2, and has important applications in reducing risk associated with aerosol generating procedures in dentistry and potentially for infection control more widely.



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Microbe(s): None


Introduction Compression is the mainstay of treatment for venous leg ulcers (VLUs) and there are few effective adjuvant treatments. There is only observational evidence supporting the of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) as a topical wound solution on VLU and some limited randomised evidence for the effect of a prescribed regimen of exercise. The Factorial4VLU trial is a pragmatic, blinded, factorial randomised controlled trial, with 380 participants receiving either a prescribed exercise regimen compared with usual care and either active HOCl wound solution or placebo wound solution at each dressing change for up to 24 weeks. All participants will receive compression therapy. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants with healed VLU at 12 weeks after randomisation as adjudicated by blinded review of ulcer photographs. Secondary outcomes are proportion healed at 24 weeks, time to healing, estimated change in ulcer area, change in 2-Minute Walk Test, change in health-related quality of life, incidence of infection and incidence of all-caadverse events. If either of the interventions shows a statistically significant positive difference on healing outcomes, cost-effectiveness will be modelled using a health service perspective.



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Microbe(s): Pseudomonas aeruginosa


Weakly acidic hypochlorous acid (HClO 200 ppm, pH 6.5) is effective against a broad range of microorganisms. We have previously reported a study of developing antimicrobial biomaterials made up of chitin-nanofiber sheet (CNFS) -immobilized silver nanoparticles (CNFS/Ag NPs) and showed that either cleansing with HClO or covering with CNFS/Ag NPs daily for more than 7 days resulted in delayed wound healing. This study aimed to evaluate disinfection and wound healing by a combination of cleansing with HClO and covering with CNFS/Ag NPs daily for 3 days. Applying HClO CNFS/Ag NPs daily for 3 days and then cleansing with just pure water and covering with CNFS alone daily for 9 days were performed for Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected wounds in db/db diabetic mice. We found a significant enhancement of wound healing and a reduction of bacteria counts compared to the controls. Histological examination showed significantly advanced granulation tissue and capillary formations in the wounds on Day 12. These results suggest that limited disinfection to 3 days with HClO CNFS/Ag NPs may be sufficient to avoid negative effects on wound repair.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


Managing cavity wounds that cannot be cleaned using standard irrigating solution is challenging. An immunocompromised patient with a horseshoe perianal abscess was infection in wound cavities.



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Microbe(s): COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Coronavirus


The surgeon needs to have an inexpensive, available, nontoxic, and practical disinfectant that is effective in sanitizing against the COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) virus. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence for using hypochlorous acid in the office setting on a daily basis. The method used to assemble recommendations was a review of the literature including evidence for this solution when used in different locations and industries other than the oral-maxillofacial clinic facility. The results indicate that this material can be used with a high predictability for disinfecting against the COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) virus.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a naturally occurring molecule produced by the immune system, is highly active against bacterial, viral, and fungal microorganisms. Moreover, HOCl is active against biofilm and increases oxygenation of the wound site to improve healing. Natural HOCl is unstable through technology, it can be stabilized into an effective topical antiseptic agent. This paper focuses on the of topical stabilized HOCl in wound and scar management for pre, peri, and postproceduresincluding its ability to reduce the occurrence hypertrophic scars and keloids. The role of the product in other skin conditions is beyond the scope of this article. A panel comprising clinicians with experience in cosmetic and surgical procedures met late 2018 to discuss literature search results and their own current clinical experience regarding topical stabilized HOCl. The panel of key opinion leaders in dermatology and plastic surgery defined key insights and consensus statements on the direction of for the product. Topical stabilized HOCl provides an optimal wound healing environment and, when combined with silicone, may be ideal for reducing scarring. Additionally, in contrast to chlorhexidine, HOCl, used as an antiseptic skin preparation, raises no concerns of ocular or ototoxicity. For wound care and scar management, topical stabilized HOCl conveys powerful microbicidal and antibiofilm properties, in addition to potency as a topical wound healing agent. It may offer physicians an alternative to other less desirable wound care measures.



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Microbe(s): Candida albicans


Wound infections involving Candida albicans can be challenging to treat becaof the fungus ability to penetrate wound tissue and form biofilms. The goal of this study was to assess the activity of a hypochlorous acid (HOCl)generating electrochemical scaffold (escaffold) against C. albicans biofilms in vitro and on porcine dermal explants (ex vivo). C. albicans biofilms were grown either on acrylicbottom sixwell plates (in vitro) or on skin tissue excised from porcine ears (ex vivo), and the polarized escaffold was used to generate a continuous supply of low concentration HOCl near biofilm surfaces. C. albicans biofilms grown in vitro were reduced to undetectable amounts within 24 h of escaffold exposure, unlike control biofilms (528 0034 log10 (CFU cm2) P < 00001). C. albicans biofilms grown on porcine dermal explants were also reduced to undetectable amounts in 24 h, unlike control explant biofilms (429 0057 log10 (CFU cm2) P < 00001). There was a decrease in the number of viable mammalian cells (356 64) in uninfected porcine dermal explants exposed to continuous HOClgenerating escaffolds for 24 h compared to explants exposed to nonpolarized escaffolds (not generating HOCl) (P < 005). Our HOClgenerating escaffold is a potential antifungalfree strategy to treat C. albicans biofilms in chronic wounds. Wound infections caused by C. albicans are difficult to treat due to presence of biofilms in wound beds. Our HOCl producing escaffold provides a promising novel approach to treat wound infections caused by C. albicans.



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Microbe(s): COVID-19, Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2


SARS COVID-19 is a potentially lethal viral infection transmitted from the mouth, nose and eyes of infected patients. Ophthalmologists have died of this disease. For eye care specialists, the new normal includes asking our patients to wear a mask, gloves and to stay at least 6 feet away. The latter being impossible during an eye examination. The mask acts as a barrier to respiratory virion touching the patient eyes, eye lid skin and tears.



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Microbe(s): Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa


Many antiseptics have been used to treat wounds. To compare the microbicidal efficacy of ClHO (Clortech) with other antiseptics used on wounds, healthy skin and mucous membranes. The microbicidal efficacy of 13 antiseptic products on eight micro-organisms (three Gram-positive three Gram-negative two yeasts) inoculated on organic germ-carriers was studied. In addition, the loss of efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with biofilm was assessed with the six best-performing products. Chlorhexidine (1) had the highest microbicidal effect at 1 min. At 5 min, 500 and 1500 mg/L ClHO showed similar, or better, activity than the other antiseptics studied. The ClHO concentration of 300 mg/L achieved this same efficacy at 10 min. The product that lost the most efficacy due to biofilm was 1 chlorhexidine, while 1 PVP-I and ClHO at either 300 or 500 mg/L were moderately affected by biofilm. The most effective in the presence of biofilm was ClHO at 1500 mg/L. ClHO at mediumlow concentrations (300 or 500 mg/L) is a good antiseptic that can be used on wounds and mucous membranes for 510 min. Lower concentrations of ClHO, as well as of the other antiseptics studied, were less effective or more altered by the biofilm. ClHO at a concentration of 1500 mg/L is very effective in the presence or absence of biofilm that can be used on healthy skin for 5 min.



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Microbe(s): Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa


Biofilm formation causes prolonged wound infections due to the dense biofilm structure, differential gene regulation to combat stress, and production of extracellular polymeric substances. Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are three difficult-to-treat biofilm-forming bacteria frequently found in wound infections. This work describes a novel wound dressing in the form of an electrochemical scaffold (e-scaffold) that generates controlled, low concentrations of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) suitable for killing biofilm communities without substantially damaging host tissue. Production of HOCl near the e-scaffold surface was verified by measuring its concentration using needle-type microelectrodes. E-scaffolds producing 17, 10 and 7mM HOCl completely eradicated S. aureus, A. baumannii, and P. aeruginosa biofilms after 3hours, 2hours, and 1hour, respectively. Cytotoxicity and histopathological assessment showed no discernible harm to host tissues when e-scaffolds were applied to explant biofilms. The described strategy may provide a novel antibiotic-free strategy for treating persistent biofilm-associated infections, such as wound infections.



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Microbe(s): Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa


Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO, SHC)/hypochlorous acid (HClO, HCA) wound irrigation solutions have experienced a renaissance in the prevention and treatment of low-level wound infections. They are attributed with lower cytotoxicity and have therefore gained increasing attention in daily clinical practice. To determine the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial efficacy of six NaClO/HClO wound irrigation solutions. For cytotoxicity evaluation (based on DIN EN 10993-5), human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human skin fibroblasts (BJ) were used. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for antimicrobial efficacy evaluation (based on DIN EN 13727). Solutions were evaluated after 1, 5 and 15min of exposure. Additionally, physicochemical properties (pH and oxidationreduction potential values) were investigated. Efficacy and cytotoxicity varied significantly between solutions. Generally, increasing antimicrobial activity was associated with decreasing cell viability. Furthermore, a concentration- and time-dependent impact on pathogens and cells was observed: cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity increased with rising NaClO/HClO solution concentrations and extended exposure times. Based on these in vitro evaluations, the following ranking (lowest to highest microbicidal effect and cytotoxic impact) was found: Microdacyn60 (SHC/HCA-M)


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Microbe(s): None


It has been reported that topical hypochlorous acid (HOCl) formulations lead to relief of itch in human patients with atopic dermatitis however, the specific antipruritic mechanism of action remains unclear. To confirm itch relief and reduction of lesions in a momodel of atopic dermatitis and to elucidate possible HOCls mode of action. In this study, the effects of topical administration of HOCl hydrogel (0.05%) on atopic dermatitislike lesions in NC/Nga mice model as well as in vitro effects of HOCl on dorsal root ganglia neurons and mobone marrowderived dendritic cells (mBMDCs) were investigated. NC/Nga mice were sensitized with hodust mite allergen and treated topically with HOCl hydrogel both preventively and therapeutically against established lesions. Allergen challenge was continued during HOCl hydrogel application. Treatment with HOCl hydrogel prevented the development of lesions and scratching bouts during the whole observation period. When administered after full development of lesions, HOCl reduced lesions and scratching behaviour to a similar extent as a positive control 0.1% betamethasone dipropionate ointment. The reduced inflammatory response by HOCl treatment was demonstrated by reduced secretion of inflammatory cytokines in affected skin tissue from NC/Nga mice. In addition, HOCl significantly reduced IL12 production in mBMDC. The diminished scratching behaviour was confirmed by impaired response to several pruritogens in dorsal root ganglia neurons excised from NC/Nga mice after termination of the studies. The response to the stimuli was also reduced by preincubation of sensory neurons from untreated BALB/c mice with 0.0001% HOCl.



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Microbe(s): None


Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) demonstrates rapid and broad antimicrobial activity against planktonic and biofilm phenotype bacteria in vitro. To identify the protein content present in breast pockets in vivo and calculate the estimated active concentration of HOCl, (PhaseOne, Integrated Healing Technologies, Franklin, TN) following HOCl-protein interactions. Fluid samples were collected prior to implant insertion in 18 consecutive patients, representing 36 pocket samples, with all cases being bilateral primary breast augmentations. Samples were evaluated by an independent CLIA approved laboratory for albumin and total protein concentration in g/dL. Results were compared to HOCl solution concentration and protein binding potential to determine availability of free HOCl. The mean tissue sample concentration (right and left breast) was 31.6 mg/dL which translates to 0.0001 mmol per 20 cc of interstitial fluid. Mean total protein levels (right and left breast) were 62.3 mg/dL or 0.000187 mmol per 20 cc interstitial fluid. Based upon potential stoichiometric neutralization of HOCl by proteins in either a 1:1 or 3:1 ratio, using 115 cc of HOCl solution (per breast) at a concentration of 250 ppm/mL or 0.025 HOCl or 0.48 mmol HOCl/dL, there would be 2950 times the amount of active HOCl at a 1:1 reaction ratio, or 983 times more HOCl assuming a 3:1 reaction ratio. Based on the range of identified levels of protein in individual surgical pockets in the study, there is an estimated 242 to 12,500 times more HOCl molecules than protein at a 3:1 molar ratio of binding or reactive protein. An estimated range of 983-2950 times more HOCl molecules are present during irrigation with 230 cc of PhaseOne (115 cc for each breast) than available protein. This supports the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity as described in previous in vitro studies when using PhaseOne as part of pocket irrigation.



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Microbe(s): None


of Hypochlorous Acid as a Preoperative Antiseptic Before Placement of Dermal Fillers: An Alternative to the Standard Options



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Microbe(s): Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Pseudomonas aeruginosa


The purpose of this study was to determine whether a commercial formulation of hypochlorous acid hygiene solution (0.01), Avenova, can destroy existing biofilms formed by ocular clinical bacterial isolates, including blepharitis isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), and a keratitis isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biofilms grown in bacterial growth media on disposable contact lens cases were challenged with hypochlorous acid hygiene solution. At various time points, surviving bacteria were quantified by serial dilution and colony counts. S. aureus biofilms formed on glass were challenged using a hypochlorous acid hygiene solution, and imaged using vital staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Bactericidal activity (3 Log10 99.9) was observed for all tested bacterial species after a 30-minute exposure. S. aureus biofilms had a bactericidal level of killing by 10 minutes (p<0.01), S. capitis by 5 minutes (p<0.001), S. epidermidis by 30 minutes (p<0.001), and P. aeruginosa by 10 minutes (p<0.01). Confocal microscopy and crystal violet staining analysis of bacterial biofilms treated with hypochlorous acid solution both demonstrated that biofilm bacteria were readily killed, but biofilm structure was largely maintained. Hypochlorous acid (0.01) hygiene solution was able to achieve bactericidal levels of killing of bacteria in biofilms, but did not disrupt biofilm structures. Susceptibility of tested staphylococcal blepharitis isolates varied by species, with S. capitis being the most susceptible and S. epidermidis being the least susceptible.



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Microbe(s): Ralstonia Pickettii


Ralstonia Pickettii biofilms are associated with pocket infections following breast implant surgeries. Biofilm protects bacteria most topically applied antimicrobial irrigations. To evaluate the effectiveness of four antimicrobial solutions on the planktonic form and established biofilm of Ralstonia Pickettii grown on 3 different types of silicone breast implants. Time kill assays at clinical concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate, povidone iodine, triple-antibiotic solution, and a 0.025 hypochlorous acid solution stabilized in amber glass were evaluated. Normal saline was the control. Three types of silicone implants, two with a textured surface and one smooth surface, were in the first five minute soak time. Noncytotoxic, 0.025 hypochlorous acid in normal saline, stabilized in amber glass, successfully eradicated Ralstonia pickettii in planktonic and mature biofilm on three types of silicone implants during initial five minute soak time and may be the preferred antimicrobial solution for pocket lavage. This preliminary study requires further investigation. Leaching and implant compatibility testing is currently in progress.



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Microbe(s): Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa


In-vitro and in-vivo studies have supported antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and other biologic properties of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which has led to its in the treatment of skin wounds, pruritus, diabetic ulcers, and some inflammatory skin disorders. Research has also shown that the physiochemical properties of HOCl after application to skin are highly dependent on both pH and formulation stability. In this review, the authors discuss a core HOCI formulation that is stable for up to two years, noncytotoxic, and pH-neutralized to augment therapeutic activity, skin tolerability, and stability. The authors summarize relevant study outcomes and potential modes of action related to this core HOCI formulation, as well as describe its ready-to-vehicles that are approved and available for topical application.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


Leaving the abdominal cavity open is a well-described and frequently utilized technique in the treatment of severe intra-abdominal sepsis. Irrigation through a negative pressure wound therapy device is a technique employed to assist in the closure of wounds as well as the reduction of bacterial contamination. Furthermore, hypochlorous acid has been found to be safe and effective in microorganismal elimination from extremity wounds. There is no literature regarding the infusion of hypochlorous solution into the abdominal cavity for intra-abdominal sepsis or mucopurulent abscesses or biofilm. Objectives: A 47-year-old man with granulomatosis polyangiitis was started on weekly rituximab. After 4 infusions, skin sloughing, ultimately diagnosed as toxic epidermal necrolysis, developed. During the hospital course, he developed sepsis and bowel perforation necessitating an exploratory laparotomy. The abdomen was left open with a temporary abdominal closure using the Abthera open abdomen negative wound therapy device however, the abdomen remained infected with visually diffuse, thickening mucopurulence despite multiple washouts. Therefore, a VAC Vera-Flo irrigation device was combined with the Abthera open abdomen negative wound therapy device and cyclical irrigation of hypochlorous acid. After 72 hours, the purulence visually was improved and no adverse events were recorded with the placement of intra-abdominal hypochlorous acid. Conclusions: The combination of two medical devices for the intra-abdominal instillation of irrigation is considered off-label from the manufacturers recommendations. In addition, the repeated instillation of hypochlorous acid solution has not been described but was noted to have visually decreased the contaminated effluent within the intra-abdominal fluid.



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Microbe(s): Clostridium difficile


Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) is a product of an inexpensiveelectrolysis process. It can be easily synthesized using a simple andrelatively inexpensive technology. The of AEW as a disinfectanthas been previously described in the literature, most often inthe context of food disinfection, including fruit, vegetables, and eggs.It reduces the morbidity rate caused by bacteria that can be transmittedthrough these food products, such as Salmonella spp, Listeriamonocytogenes, Yersinia spp, and Escherichia coli.1,2 In addition to disinfectionof food products, it has also been reported that AEW candisinfect medical equipment, such as endoscopes and hemodialysissystems.3The antimicrobial mechanism of AEW is still not fully understood.Some researchers believe that the antimicrobial activity canbe attributed to the high oxidation reduction potential (ORP) of AEW.High ORP causes a change in bacterial metabolism and adenosinetriphosphate production, probably becaof changes in the electroncurrent flow into bacterial cells. Low pH also destabilizes thebacterial outer membrane, resulting in entry of hypochlorous acidinto bacteria. Hypochlorous acid, which is very active and containschlorine compounds, kills bacteria by inhibiting glucoseoxidation by certain enzymes that are important in carbohydratemetabolism.2,4The bacterium Clostridium difficile has become a major epidemiologicchallenge in recent years. One of the most difficult problemsconcerning this bacterium is that we do not have an efficient disinfectantfor eradication of the bacterial spores found in patientsfeces that constitute a source of transferring the infection to otherpatients.5 In this study we examined the disinfection efficiency ofAEW pH 5 against spores of C difficile. Bacteria were isolated frompatients diagnosed as suffering from C difficile infection. Thirty suspensionsof C difficile spores were prepared at a concentration of106 spores per milliliter these spores were grown in AEW preparedwith the aid of the Super Oxide Water Ionizer Batch System(BionTech, Gyeonggi-do, Korea). We also compared the disinfectionefficiency of AEW and Septadine (chlorhexidine gluconate 0.5wt/vol and alcohol 70), which is the customary disinfectant forhands and surfaces.The survival of spores was monitored every 15 minutes for anhour, using semi-quantitative culture containing CHROMagar C.difficile (bioMrieux, Durham, NC) under anaerobic conditions. Underexposure to AEW, there was a gradual decline after 30 minutes inthe quantity of surviving spores, and at the end of the trial therewere 103 spores per milliliter. Exposure to Septadine led to a sharpactwith water or with any other organic solution, it is neutralized andloses its activity.



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Microbe(s): Propionibacterium acnes, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis


Purpose To examine the magnitude of bacterial reduction on the surface of the periocular skin 20 minutes after application of a saline hygiene solution containing 0.01 pure hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Methods Microbiological specimens were collected immediately prior to applying the hygiene solution and again 20 minutes later. Total microbial colonies were counted and each unique colony morphology was processed to identify the bacterial species and to determine the susceptibility profile to 15 out altering the diversity of bacterial species remaining on the skin under the lower eyelid.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus sanguinis


Chemotherapeutic agents have been used as an adjunct to mechanical debridement for peri-implantitis treatment. The present in vitro study evaluated and compared the effectiveness of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and chlorhexidine (CHX) at eliminating Gram-negative (E. coli and P. gingivalis) and Gram-positive (E. faecalis and S. sanguinis) bacteria. The effect of irrigating volume and exposure time on the antimicrobial efficacy of HOCl was evaluated, and a durability analysis was completed. Live/dead staining, morphology observation, alamarBlue assay, and lipopolysacLPS) detection were examined on grit-blasted and biofilm-contaminated titanium alloy discs after treatment with the three chemotherapeutic agents. The results indicated that HOCl exhibited better antibacterial efficacy with increasing irrigating volumes. HOCl achieved greater antibacterial efficacy as treatment time was increased. A decrease in antimicrobial effectiveness was observed when HOCl was unsealed and left in contact with the air. All the irrigants showed antibacterial activity and killed the majority of bacteria on the titanium alloy surfaces of biofilm-contaminated implants. Moreover, HOCl significantly lowered the LPS concentration of P. gingivalis when compared with NaOCl and CHX. Thus, a HOCl antiseptic may be effective for cleaning biofilm-contaminated implant surfaces.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


Objectives/Hypothesis We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of low-concentration hypochlorous acid (HOCl) nasal irrigation compared to isotonic normal saline for pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis. Study Design This was a randomized, prospective, active-controlled study.MethodsThis study investigated the effectiveness of 4 weeks of low-concentration hypochlorous irrigation by analyzing five categorized subjective symptoms and x-ray findings in pediatric patients with rhinosinusitis. Thirty-seven patients were enrolled, and 26 patients successfully completed the study. Results Total symptom scores significantly improved with both HOCl and normal saline nasal irrigation, but there was no difference between the two groups. X-ray scores also improved in both groups improvement was much greater in the HOCl group than the placebo group. Conclusions Nasal irrigation with HOCl is an effective adjuvant treatment compared to isotonic normal saline for pediatric sinusitis.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


Introduction: Wound debridement is considered essential in chronic wound management. Hypochlorous acid has been shown to be an effective agent in reducing wound bacterial counts in open wounds. Ultrasound-enabled wound debridement is an effective and efficient method of debridement. This study compared ultrasound irrigation with hypochlorous acid versus saline irrigation for wound debridement on pre- and postoperative wounds and determined regrowth of bacteria over 1 week period of time. Finally, the outcome of definitive wound closure of the clinically clean-appearing wounds was recorded. Methods: Seventeen consenting adult patients with chronic open wounds were randomly ultrasound versus saline alone.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


Our previous experimental study of perforated peritonitis in rats proved that peritoneal lavage with strong acid electrolyzed water (SAEW) has no adverse effects, reduces the bacteria count in the ascitic fluid more effectively than saline, and increases the survival rate significantly. Thus, we conducted a randomized controlled study, applying SAEW in the treatment of perforated appendicitis in children. Forty-four patients, aged 314 years, were randomly divided into two groups: Group S (n = 20), in which the peritoneal cavity was lavaged with 100 ml/kg saline and the wound was washed out with 200 ml saline and Group E (n = 24), in which the peritoneal cavity was lavaged with 100 ml/kg SAEW and the wound was washed out with 200 ml SAEW. No adverse effect of SAEW was observed in Group E. There was no difference in the bacterial evanescence ratio of ascitic fluid after lavage between Groups S and E (11.1 and 15.8 %, respectively). A residual abscess developed in one patient from each group (5.0 and 4.2 %, respectively). The incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) was significantly lower in Group E than in Group S (0 and 20 %, respectively P < 0.05). There was no difference in the duration of pyrexia, positive C-reactive protein, leukocytosis, or hospital stay between the groups. Peritoneal lavage and wound washing with SAEW have no adverse effects and are effective for preventing SSI.



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Microbe(s): Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA


OBJECTIVE: Biofilms represent a key challenge in the treatment of chronic wounds, as they are among the main reasons for delays in chronic wound healing. This in vitro study was aimed at evaluating the activity of a new acid-oxidizing solution (AOS) on biofilm formation. Acid-oxidizing solution contains free chlorine species with stabilized hypochlorous acid in high concentration (> 95) and is RP2). Different approaches were used to assess the prevention and eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus biofilm by the study products. Xylitol and chlorhexidine were used as positive controls. The activity of the study products on the biofilm structure was evaluated analyzing the ultrastructural modification by scanning electron microscopy, while skin compatibility was assessed on noncolonized tissues measuring the metabolic activity of the cells. RESULTS: In all experiments, AOS showed to be active on the biofilm matrix, modifying its structure and allowing bacterial release from the matrix. In all experiments, no cytotoxicity was observed in the tissues treated with the product suggesting a good compatibility of AOS with skin tissues. Reference product 1 affected the biofilm, suggesting a disruption effect RP2 was slightly less active than AOS in modifying the biofilm structure. CONCLUSION: Treatment with AOS affects biofilm by modifying its structure and therefore facilitating local bacteria accessibility to bactericidal agents, with consequent potential clinical benefits in the treatment of chronic wounds.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


Hospitals are faced with increasingly resistant strains of micro-organisms. When it comes to disinfection, individual parts of electronic equipment of angiology diagnostics such as patient couches of computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners prove to be very hard to disinfect. Disinfectants of choice are therefore expected to possess properties such as rapid, residue-free action without any damaging effect on the sensitive electronic equipment. This paper discusses the of the neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) as a biocide for the disinfection of diagnostic rooms and equipment.MethodsThe CT and MRI rooms were aerosolized with EOW using aerosolization device. The presence of micro-organisms before and after the aerosolization was recorded with the help of sedimentation and cyclone air sampling. Total body count (TBC) was evaluated in absolute and log values.ResultsThe number of micro-organisms in hospital rooms was low as expected. Nevertheless, a possible TBC reduction between 78.9992.50% or 50.5070.60% in log values was recorded.ConclusionsThe research has shown that the of EOW for the air and hard surface disinfection can considerably reduce the presence of micro-organisms and consequently the possibility of hospital infections. It has also demonstrated that the sedimentation procedure is insufficient for the TBC determination. The of Biocide aerosolization proved to be efficient and safe in all applied ways. Also, no eventual damage to exposed devices or staff was recorded.



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Microbe(s): Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Myroides spp, MRSA, VRE


The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of usage and normal concentrations of electrolyzed water in hospital. In our study, the effects of different concentrations of electrolyzed water on two gram positive, four gram negative standard strains and clinical isolates of four gram negative, two gram positive, one spore-forming bacillus and Myroides spp strains that lead to hospital infections were researched. The effects of different concentrations and different contact times of Envirolyte electrolyzed water on cited strains were researched through method of qualitative suspension tests. Petri dishes fo bacteria have been incubated at 37 C 48 hours. Bactericidal disinfectant was interpreted to be effective at the end of the period due to the lack of growth. Solutions to which disinfectant were not added were prepared with an eye to control reproduction and controlcultures were made by using neutralizing agents. 1/1, 1/2, and 1/10 concentrations of Envirolyte electrolyzed water were found to be effective on the bacteria that lead to hospital infections used during all test times. As a conclusion, based upon the results we acquired, it was observed that Envirolyte electrolyzed water of 100 concentration would be convenient to be used for disinfection when diluted to a usage concentration of 1/10.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


Biofilm formation in dental unit water systems (DUWSs) can contaminate water from three-in-one syringes, air rotors, and low-speed handpieces. This may serve as a potential source of infection for dentists, dental staff, and patients, so these systems must be sterilized. Becaslightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) is often used as a disinfectant for food, the aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using SAEW as a DUWS disinfectant. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water was injected into a dental unit and its effects evaluated. Chemical properties such as chlorine ion and potential hydrogen in the SAEW were measured. Detection of both ordinary and heterotrophic bacteria from the DUWS was performed by culture, and biofilm formation of the bacteria in the DUWS evaluated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detected contamination by nosocomial pathogens. Almost all the chlorine ions in the SAEW were exhausted during the two-day trials, and the pH value of the SAEW fell from 5 to 4. No viable cells were detected in the SAEW collected. Biofilm formation in the water from the DUWS with SAEW was almost at a baseline level, whereas that without SAEW was 4 times higher. The PCR analysis showed that no nosocomial infecting pathogens were detected in the SAEW. The present study demonstrated the antiseptic effect of SAEW in DUWS.



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Microbe(s): Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSE, VRE Bacillus subtilis, Myroides spp.


Super-oxidized water is one of the broad spectrum disinfectants, which was introduced recently. There are many researches to find reliable chemicals which are effective, inexpensive, easy to obtain and use, and effective for disinfection of microorganisms leading hospital infections. Antimicrobial activity of super-oxidized water is promising. The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Medilox super-oxidized water that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as high level disinfectant. Material and methods In this study, super-oxidized water obtained from Medilox Soosan E & C, Korea device, which had been already installed in our hospital, was used. Antimicrobial activities of different concentrations of super-oxidized water (1/1, 1/2, 1/5, 1/10, 1/20, 1/50, 1/100) at different exposure times (1, 2, 5, 10, 30 min) against six ATCC strains, eight antibiotic resistant bacteria, yeasts and molds were evaluated using qualitative suspension test. Dey-Engley Neutralizing Broth Sigma-Aldrich, USA was used as neutralizing agent. Results Medilox was found to be effective against all standard strains (Acinetobacter baumannii 19606, Escherichia coli 25922, Enterococcus faecalis 29212, Klebsiella pneumoniae 254988, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27853, Staphylococcus aureus 29213), all clinical isolates (Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Myroides spp.), and all yeastsat 1/1 dilution in 1 minute. It was found to be effective on Aspergillus flavus at 1/1 dilution in 2 minutes and on certain molds in 5 minutes. Conclusion Medilox super-oxidized water is a broad spectrum, on-site producible disinfectant, which is effective on bacteria and fungi and can be used for the control of nosocomial infection.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)


This study aimed to monitor the microbiological effect of cleaning near-patient sites over a 48-hour period with a novel disinfectant, electrolyzed water. One ward dedicated to acute care of the elderly population in a district general hospital in Scotland. Lockers, left and right cotsides, and overbed tables in 30 bed spaces were screened for aerobic colony count (ACC), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) before cleaning with electrolyzed water. Sites were rescreened at varying intervals from 1 to 48 hours after cleaning. Microbial growth was quantified as colony-forming units (CFUs) per square centimeter and presence or absence of MSSA and MRSA at each site. The study was repeated 3 times at monthly intervals. There was an early and significant reduction in average ACC (360 sampled sites) from a before-cleaning level of 4.3 to 1.65 CFU/cm2 at 1 hour after disinfectant cleaning (P <.0001). Average counts then increased to 3.53 CFU/cm2 at 24 hours and 3.68 CFU/cm2 at 48 hours. Total MSSA/MRSA (34 isolates) decreased by 71% at 4 hours after cleaning but then increased to 155% (53 isolates) of precleaning levels at 24 hours. Cleaning with electrolyzed water reduced ACC and staphylococci on surfaces beside patients. ACC remained below precleaning levels at 48 hours, but MSSA/MRSA counts exceeded original levels at 24 hours after cleaning. Although disinfectant cleaning quickly reduces bioburden, additional investigation is required to clarify the reasons for rebound contamination of pathogens at near-patient sites.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


Introduction. Chronic wounds and the infections associated with them are responsible for a considerable escalation in morbidity and the cost of health care. Infection and cellular activation and the relation between cells are 2 critical factors in wound healing. Since chronic wounds offer ideal conditions for infection and biofilm production, good wound care strategies are critical for wound healing. Topical antiseptics in chronic wounds remain in widespread today. These antiseptics are successful in microbial eradication, but their cytotoxcity is a controversial issue in wound healing. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of stabilized hypochlorous acid solution (HOCl) on killing rate, biofilm formation, antimicrobial activity within biofilm against frequently isolated microorganisms and migration rate of wounded fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Materials and Methods. Minimal bactericidal concentration of stabilized HOCl solution for all standard microorganisms was 1/64 dilution and for clinical isolates it ranged from 1/32 to 1/64 dilutions. Results. All microorganisms were killed within 0 minutes and accurate killing time was 12 seconds. The effective dose for biofilm impairment for standard microorganisms and clinical isolates ranged from 1/32 to 1/16. Microbicidal effects within the biofilm and antibiofilm concentration was the same for each microorganism. Conclusion. The stabilized HOCl solution had dose-dependent favorable effects on fibroblast and keratinocyte migration compared to povidone iodine and media alone. These features lead to a stabilized HOCl solution as an ideal wound care agent.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of sterilization with peracetic acid (PAA) and ethanol on the biological activity of porcine liver scaffolds and to develop a new technique for sterilization using slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW). METHODS: Decellularization of liver slices was performed using 0.1% sodium-dodecyl-sulfate, then evaluated by histological and polymerase chain reaction analyses. Decellularized slices were treated with either PAA or ethanol or SAEW, and then DNA content was quantified. We determined sterilization efficiency by culturing scaffolds in culture medium and on blood agar. We next analyzed the glycosaminoglycan and collagen contents of the scaffolds. Finally, we tested the cytotoxicity of the scaffolds as well as the effects of sterilization on host cell attachment and proliferation. RESULTS: Complete cell and antigenic epitopes removal emphasized the decellularization efficiency. PAA and SAEW treatments achieved the highest efficiency of sterilization compared to that of the ethanol treated scaffolds, and were able to remove a considerable fraction of DNA from decellularized livers. The retained glycosaminoglycan content decreased in all treatments in the following order: SAEW, ethanol, and PAA. Ethanol caused a significant loss in collagen content compared to the other groups. A cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that all scaffolds were nontoxic. SAEW-treated scaffolds supported cell attachment and proliferation at a significantly higher rate than other groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that SAEW is highly efficient for sterilizing scaffolds and allowed the scaffolds to retain their bioactivity in addition to its high efficiency for cell remnant removal.



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Microbe(s): Staphylococcus epidermidis


The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which a direct electrical current reduced the viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in conjunction with ciprofloxacin at physiologic saline conditions meant to approximate those in an infected artificial joint. Biofilms grown in CDC biofilm reactors were exposed to current for 24 hours in 1/10th strength tryptic soy broth containing 9 g/L total NaCl. Dose-dependent log reductions up to 6.7 log10 CFU/cm2 were observed with the application of direct current at all four levels (0.7 to 1.8 mA/cm2) both in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin. There were no significant differences in log reductions for wells with ciprofloxacin compared to those without at the same current levels. When current exposures were repeated without biofilm or organics in the medium, significant generation of free chlorine was measured. Free chlorine doses equivalent to the 24 hour endpoint concentration for each current level were shown to mimic killing achieved by current application. Current exposure (1.8 mA/cm2) in medium lacking chloride and amended with sulfate, nitrate, or phosphate as alternative electrolytes produced diminished kills of 3, 2, and 0 log reduction, respectively. Direct current also killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms when NaCl was present. Together these results indicate that electrolysis reactions generating hypochlorous acid from chloride are likely a main contributor to the efficacy of direct current application. A physiologically relevant NaCl concentration is thus a critical parameter in experimental design if direct current is to be investigated for in vivo medical applications.



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Microbe(s): Staphylococcus aureus


Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen. It can form biofilm on the surfaces of medical devices and food equipment, which makes it more difficult to eradicate. To develop a novel method to eradicate S. aureus biofilm, the effects of electrolyzed water on removing and killing S. aureus biofilm were investigated in this study. By using a biofilm biomass assay with safranin staining and visualization of biofilm architecture with scanning electron microscopy, it was shown that basic electrolyzed water (BEW) could effectively remove established biofilm. The pH of electrolyzed water affected removal efficacy. Using a biofilm viability assay with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide staining, acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) efficiently killed biofilm-imbedded S. aureus. The available chlorine in AEW may be a main contributing factor for bactericidal activity. Additionally, BEW had a removal efficacy for S. aureus biofilm equivalent to 2% NaOH, and AEW had a bactericidal capability for S. aureus in biofilm equivalent to 2% HCl. These data suggested that AEW and BEW could be applied as a bactericide and removing agent for S. aureus in biofilm, respectively.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


Due to the limitations associated with the of existing biocidal agents, there is a need to explore new methods of disinfection to help maintain effective bioburden control, especially within the healthcare environment. The transformation of low mineral salt solutions into an activated metastable state, by electrochemical unipolar action, produces a solution containing a variety of oxidants, including hypochlorous acid, free chlorine and free radicals, known to possess antimicrobial properties. Electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS) have been shown to have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and have the potential to be widely adopted within the healthcare environment due to low-cost raw material requirements and ease of production (either remotely or in situ). Numerous studies have found ECAS to be highly efficacious, as both a novel environmental decontaminant and a topical treatment agent (with low accompanying toxicity), but they are still not in widespread use, particularly within the healthcare environment. This review provides an overview of the scientific evidence for the mode of action, antimicrobial spectrum and potential healthcare-related applications of ECAS, providing an insight into these novel yet seldom utilised biocides.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


OBJECTIVE To realize the disinfectant effect of medical instrument by acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water(EOW).METHODS Two groups of subjects participated in this study,and chlorinated disinfectant is used in the control group. Adopting stability test to measure effective chlorine and pH,and to compute the bacterium elimination rate after disinfection. Contrast the result with the experimental group.RESULTS The pH mean value and the effective chlorine mean value of two groups before and after instrument immersing in had no remarkable differences. Medical instrument sterilized by EOW for 5 minutes,the bacterium eliminative rate was 100.0%,while sterilized by the chlorinated disinfectant needed 30 minutes. Sterilizing effects of two groups were the same,but sterilizing time was obviously short in experimental group.CONCLUSIONS The acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water can be used in medical instrument s disinfection. The effect is good,and the process is fast. EOW is better than chlorinated disinfectant in saving of resources economizing.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


PURPOSE: Electrolyzed strong acid water (ESAW) is generated by the electrolysis of a weak sodium chloride solution. Although ESAW is known to have a strong bactericidal activity and to be harmless to the living body, its effectiveness and safety in the treatment of perforated peritonitis has not been well established. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were used for the study. Three hours after cecal ligation and puncture, the cecum was resected and the peritoneal cavity was irrigated with 50 ml of saline (Group S, n=12) or ESAW (Group E, n=14). The 5-day survival rate was compared between the two groups. In another pair of animals (n=10 each), bacteria in the ascitic fluid were counted at 6 and 18 h after irrigation. RESULTS: No adverse effects of ESAW were observed in the experimental group. The 5-day survival rate was 25% (3/12) and 85.7% (12/14) in Groups S and E, respectively (P < 0.01). The bacterial count at 18 h after the irrigation in Groups S and E was (5.0 +/- 2.5) x 10(5)/ml and (2.2 +/- 2.0) x 10(4)/ml, respectively (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Peritoneal lavage with ESAW had no adverse effect, and achieved more effective decontamination than saline for perforated peritonitis. Therefore, the results of this study are considered to warrant and support the clinical application of ESAW.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli


Electrolyzed - oxidizing (EO) water is a relatively new method that has been utilized for killing pathogens in agriculture, medical sterilization and food sanitation. This water is generated by passing sodium chloride solution through EO water generator. In this study, the EO water was used to treat holy basil inoculated with Escherichia coli. The initial pH and oxidation - reduction potential (ORP) of EO water were 2.09 and 1200 mV, respectively. The treatments changed ORP to 800,950 and 1100 mV. The contact times were 10,30 and 60 min. In pure culture, E. coli viable counts in the sample treated with EO water were reduced to undetectable levels at all ORP and times. However no reduction in E. coli counts was achieved in the control sample (treated with deionized water). The initial population of E. coli was about 8.5 log10 CFU / ml which was inoculated on 5 g of holy basil. Results showed that the treatment treated with EO water was reduced about 2 log10 CFU / ml in ORP 800 and 950 mV, 4 log10 CFU / ml in ORP 1100 mV for 10 min. When the contact time increased to 30 min, the reduction of E. coli count was about 3 log 10 CFU / ml in ORP 950 mV and 5 log10 CFU / ml in ORP 1100 mV. But the reduction was not different from 10 min when treated with ORP 800 mV. When the contact time increased to 60 min, the reduction of E. coli count was about 3 log10 CFU / ml in ORP 800 mV, 4 log10 CFU / ml in ORP 950 mV. and 6 log10 CFU / ml in ORP 1100 mV. These results could be concluded that the ORP of EO water and contact time significantly inactivated E. coli.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


This study investigated the antibacterial effect of electrolyzed water on oral bacteria bothin vitro and in vivo. Tap water was electrolyzed in a water vessel using platinum celltechnology. The electrolyzed tap water (called Puri-water) was put in contact with fivemajor periodontopathogens or toothbrushes contaminated with these bacteria for 30 sec. Inaddition, Puri-water was used as a mouthwash for 30 sec in 16 subjects and the antibacterialeffect on salivary bacteria was evaluated. Puri-water significantly reduced thegrowth of all periodontopathogens in culture and on toothbrushes, and that of aerobic andanaerobic bacteria in saliva, when compared to the effect of tap water. It also significantlyreduced mutans streptococci growing on mitis salivarius-bacitracin agar. Our resultsdemonstrate that the electrolyzed tap water is effective as a mouthwash and for toothbrushdisinfection.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count, Hepatitis B Virus


Background and Aim: Two percent glutaraldehyde, the most widely used liquid chemical germicide (LCG), may be hazardous to patients and medical personnel. Alternatives to glutaraldehyde, such as electrolyzed acid water (EAW), are being developed, but data from well-controlled studies with patient-used endoscopes are rare. The purpose of the present paper was to evaluate the high-level disinfection capability of EAW and compare it with glutaraldehyde. Methods: A random sample of 125 endoscopes was collected immediately after upper endoscopic examination. After careful manual cleaning, endoscopes were divided into a glutaraldehyde and EAW group. After the disinfection procedure, samples from working channel (S-1), insertion tube (S-2), umbilical cord (S-3), and angulation knob (S-4) were taken and cultured. Another twenty endoscopes were experimentally contaminated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and samples were collected after contamination (T-1), after manual cleaning (T-2), and after final disinfection (T-3). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HBV-DNA was performed. Results: In the EAW group, culture-positive rates were 3.2% in S-1, 9.5% in S-2, 3.2% in S-3, and 27.0% in the S-4 samples. There was no significant difference between the EAW and glutaraldehyde groups for all sampling sites. However, in both groups, disinfection of the angulation knobs (S-4) was less efficient than the others. For the T-1 site, HBV-DNA was detected from all of them, and in 95% (19/20) of T-2. However, HBV-DNA was not detected from T-3 samples. Conclusions: Electrolyzed acid water is as efficient as glutaraldehyde in eliminating bacteria from patient-used endoscopes. After disinfection procedures using both methods, HBV-DNA was not detected from any endoscopes experimentally contaminated with HBV-positive mixed sera. However, some bacteria may remain on the surface of the endoscopes. Therefore, more careful precleaning of the endoscopes may help achieve high-level disinfection in the clinical setting.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157: H7


Electrolyzed oxidizing water is a relatively new concept that has been utilized in agriculture, livestock management, medical sterilization, and food sanitation. Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water generated by passing sodium chloride solution through an EO water generator was used to treat alfalfa seeds and sprouts inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of nalidixic acid resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7. EO water had a pH of 2.6, an oxidation reduction potential of 1150 mV and about 50 ppm free chlorine. The percentage reduction in bacterial load was determined for reaction times of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 min. Mechanical agitation was done while treating the seeds at different time intervals to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. Since E. coli O157:H7 was released due to soaking during treatment, the initial counts on seeds and sprouts were determined by soaking the contaminated seeds/sprouts in 0.1% peptone water for a period equivalent to treatment time. The samples were then pummeled in 0.1% peptone water and spread plated on tryptic soy agar with 50 g/ml of nalidixic acid (TSAN). Results showed that there were reductions between 38.2% and 97.1% (0.22 1.56 log10 CFU/g) in the bacterial load of treated seeds. The reductions for sprouts were between 91.1% and 99.8% (1.05 2.72 log10 CFU/g). An increase in treatment time increased the percentage reduction of E. coli O157:H7. However, germination of the treated seeds reduced from 92% to 49% as amperage to make EO water and soaking time increased. EO water did not cause any visible damage to the sprouts.



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Microbe(s): Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus


Background: It is well known that strongly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has a potent bactericidal effect. We examined residual viruses on endoscopes that were used in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive patients and evaluated the effectiveness of SAEW in cleaning/disinfecting the endoscopes. Methods: A random sample of endoscopes used in 109 endoscopies on HBV-positive patients and 107 endoscopies on HCV-positive patients, who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for various reasons was taken to determine the degree of HBV and HCV contamination. Samples were taken using 10 mL of physiological saline injected through the forceps channel of each endoscope and collected at the distal end to be assayed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After examination, each endoscope was treated with air aspiration, then 200 mL of tap water that contained an enzyme detergent was absorbed, and SAEW was aspirated after cleaning with a brush. After each procedure, PCR was used for comparison and to identify any residual viruses. Results: In saline collected after air aspiration, viruses were detected in 39/109 endoscopes used in HBV patients and in 20/107 endoscopes used in HCV patients. In the saline aspirated with tap water containing an enzyme detergent, HBV was detected in 12/109 endoscopes and HCV was detected in 6/107 endoscopes. However, neither HBV nor HCV was detected after the endoscopes were cleaned manually with a brush and disinfected with SAEW. Conclusion: Endoscopes contaminated with HBV and HCV are effectively cleaned and disinfected by SAEW.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


Electrolyzed water accelerated the healing of full-thickness cutaneous wounds in rats, but only anode chamber water (acid pH or neutralized) was effective. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), also produced by electrolysis, was ineffective, suggesting that these types of electrolyzed water enhance wound healing by a mechanism unrelated to the well-known antibacterial action of HOCl. One possibility is that reactive oxygen species, shown to be electron spin resonance spectra present in anode chamber water, might trigger early wound healing through fibroblast migration and proliferation.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine whether electrolyzed oxidized water (EOW) functions as a bactericide in burn injury with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a rat burn-wound model. METHODS:Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 31) were subjected to third-degree burns to 30% of total body surface area. Two days after injury, all rats were infected with P. aeruginosa using 1 mL of a suspension containing 1 x 10(8) colony-forming units. Rats were assigned to one of three groups: no irrigation (group I), irrigation with physiologic saline (group II), or irrigation with EOW (group III). Blood culture, endotoxin levels, and survival rates were determined. RESULTS: Survival rate was significantly higher in group III than in groups I or II (p < 0.0001). Serum endotoxin levels on day 3 after infection in group III were significantly lower than the levels in group I (p < 0.01) and group II (p < 0.01). There were significant differences between the three groups in the culture of P. aeruginosa (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Irrigation and disinfection with EOW may become useful in preventing burn-wound sepsis.